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Showing posts with label research. Show all posts
Showing posts with label research. Show all posts

Monday, December 19, 2016

Regarding The "Snowflakes" At Oxford

Some or even many of these researchers are researching what they and/or loved ones have endured, and they are researching to understand more what happened to them & to help others. By the way, would Heat Street mock (for example) Holocaust survivors and the descendants of Holocaust survivors and victims whom needed counseling and/or to leave certain lectures?

Even imagine, for example, a doctoral student whom is attempting to finish the degree that she forcibly had to suspend do to the Nuremberg Laws. While she sits in a lecture about Anti Semitism throughout history, she sees a picture of her twin sister while the pictorial slideshow plays. Given that her sister was among the Mengle Twins whom were murdered, she has flashbacks to when she was one of the twins whom "Dr." Mengle exploited and her twin was murdered shortly thereafter.

Also imagine that she sees a picture of the crematoriums, and flashes back to when her parents were burned alive in the crematoriums (This really did happen to Elie Wiesel's father on January 29, 1945, per "Night": "They must've taken him away before dawn and carried him to the crematory. He may still have been breathing.").

If she is a "snowflake", perhaps she was a cold and icy one whom (figuratively) melted in her own tears (tears that would not come before, since she had held them back).

Monday, October 24, 2016

An Issue That's Been On My Mind: How 400-430 Years Could In A Parallel Way In Post-Ancient And Post-Medieval History

I didn't say "exactly 400-430 years". Nonetheless, I've concluded that that 400-430 years again applied to Jews from the time of the Alhambra Decreewhen a disgusting practice of throwing Jews whom paid ship captains overboard happenedto either the time of the Dreyfus Affair—which began with his May 1892 arrest—or May 6, 1922, when strokes incapacitated Lenin and effected that Stalin would become Lenin's successor. At those points, Jews knew that making aliyah would be a wise action:

"13 And He said unto Abram: 'Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years; 14 and also that nation, whom they shall serve, will I judge; and afterward shall they come out with great substance. 15 But thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace; thou shalt be buried in a good old age. 16 And in the fourth generation they shall come back hither; for the iniquity of the Amorite is not yet full.'"


This time, the Moseses were Herzl and the B'nei Akiva branch of HaPoel HaMizrachi—which was founded in Yisra'el 22 days after Lenin's stroke. Granted that both events occurred in Iyar instead of Nisan in the respective years, and that the Alhambra Decree happened in Adar II of 5251—right before Rosh HaShanah 5252. Still, right in the middle of Adar—the month in which Hadasah saved Persian Jewry from Haman, whom made a decree of ethnocidal murder in Nisan—and Iyar—in which Yisra'el was refounded—is Nisan:

"And the LORD spoke unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying: 2 'This month shall be unto you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you[']."

By the way, a generation is 20 years, though generations and lifespans were usually longer back then (cf. the passage from Exodus 6 below. The 120-year life expectancy that was declared in the time of the Flood, by the way, began when Moses died.):

"And the LORD spoke unto Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, in the tent of meeting, on the first day of the second month, in the second year after they were come out of the land of Egypt, saying: 2 'Take ye the sum of all the congregation of the children of Israel, by their families, by their fathers' houses, according to the number of names, every male, by their polls; 3 from twenty years old and upward, all that are able to go forth to war in Israel: ye shall number them by their hosts, even thou and Aaron. 4 And with you there shall be a man of every tribe, every one head of his fathers' house.[']

Also, Iyar is the second month—again, when the Dreyfus Affair began and Lenin had his stroke—and Iyar was the time for Zionism to begin—after all, Adar and Nisan were the months that culminated the buildup to the Dreyfus Affair and the beginning of Stalinization. Remember, by the way, that the 12 sons of Ya'akov and others had to pass away before slavery in Egypt began:


"1 Now these are the names of the sons of Israel, who came into Egypt with Jacob; every man came with his household: 2 Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah; 3 Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin; 4Dan and Naphtali, Gad and Asher. 5 And all the souls that came out of the loins of Jacob were seventy souls; and Joseph was in Egypt already. 6 And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that generation. 7 And the children of Israel were fruitful, and increased abundantly, and multiplied, and waxed exceeding mighty; and the land was filled with them. {P}"
"These are the families of Simeon. 16 And these are the names of the sons of Levi according to their generations: Gershon and Kohath, and Merari. And the years of the life of Levi were a hundred thirty and seven years. 17 The sons of Gershon: Libni and Shimei, according to their families. 18 And the sons of Kohath: Amram, and Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel. And the years of the life of Kohath were a hundred thirty and three years. 19 And the sons of Merari: Mahli and Mushi. These are the families of the Levites according to their generations. 20 And Amram took him Jochebed his father's sister to wife; and she bore him Aaron and Moses. And the years of the life of Amram were a hundred and thirty and seven years. 21 And the sons of Izhar: Korah, and Nepheg, and Zichri. 22 And the sons of Uzziel: Mishael, and Elzaphan, and Sithri. 23 And Aaron took him Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab, the sister of Nahshon, to wife; and she bore him Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. 24 And the sons of Korah: Assir, and Elkanah, and Abiasaph; these are the families of the Korahites. 25 And Eleazar Aaron's son took him one of the daughters of Putiel to wife; and she bore him Phinehas. These are the heads of the fathers' houses of the Levites according to their families.
So, a generation's life expectancy by that point—at least among HaB'nei Levi—was 137 years. So, go for 120*4 and 137 * 4, and you get 480 and 548 years. The average is 514 years, and enough below 514 years had passed between 1492-1892 and 1492-1922. Also consider this: the max life expectancy for those whom the Spirit is with (cf. Genesis 6:3) will someday be 100 years, and is pretty much the max life expectancy that by now—which is why centenarians and those whom are older than centenarians are celebrated and make the news:


"19 And I will rejoice in Jerusalem, and joy in My people; and the voice of weeping shall be no more heard in her, nor the voice of crying. 20 There shall be no more thence an infant of days, nor an old man, that hath not filled his days; for the youngest shall die a hundred years old, and the sinner being a hundred years old shall be accursed 
We can see here that the sinner will die at 100 years and that the redeemed will go on to live past 100 years. By the way, 25 is close enough to 20; and that's when the brain reaches its full-development point. So, generations in terms of biology could really be argued to begin at 25 at max and 20 at minimum.

If you don't believe me, look at both Tanakh and at these Google searches, and peruse the sources that you find:


  1. 10:42 AM
    www.google.com
  2. 10:42 AM
    www.google.com

As I concluded, then, 400-430 years on a literal level and on parallel levels have applied to Sephardi, Ashkenazi, Mizrahi, and other Jews to this day.


Monday, October 10, 2016

Originally On LinkedIn As a Commentary Sample Of Mine: A Correlation Between Backlash Against Columbus Day & Anti Semitism?

I'd like to see if someone will undertake a study on whether the increasing backlash against Columbus Day correlates with the recent increase in Anti Semitism—whether the Anti Semitism is intentional or unintentional, and whether it is subtle or brazen—after all, Cristoforo Colombo was an Anusi (Crypto Jew; "marrano")and increasing exposure of evidence demonstrates this (not to mention that Anti Semites are also picking up on it outside of any context of Columbus Day, as hate-speech websites like Jew Watch show). Of course (and as I'm applying what I learned in my Political Research Methods class here), the following hypotheses would have to be considered:
  1. H1: The increase in the backlash against Columbus Day correlates with the recent increase in Anti Semitism, and the Anti Semitism is intentional and subtle.
  2. H2: The increase in the backlash against Columbus Day correlates with the recent increase in Anti Semitism, and the Anti Semitism is intentional and brazen.
  3. H3: The increase in the backlash against Columbus Day correlates with the recent increase in Anti Semitism, and the Anti Semitism is unintentional and subtle.
  4. H4: The increase in the backlash against Columbus Day correlates with the recent increase in Anti Semitism, and the Anti Semitism is unintentional and nonetheless brazen.
  5. H5: The increase in the backlash against Columbus Day inversely correlates with the recent increase in Anti Semitism, whether any Anti Semitism would intentional and subtle otherwise.
  6. H6: The increase in the backlash against Columbus Day inversely correlates with the recent increase in Anti Semitism, whether any Anti Semitism would be intentional and brazen otherwise.
  7. H7: The increase in the backlash against Columbus Day inversely correlates with the recent increase in Anti Semitism, whether any Anti Semitism would be unintentional and subtle otherwise.
  8. H8: The increase in the backlash against Columbus Day inversely correlates with the recent increase in Anti Semitism, whether any Anti Semitism would unintentional and brazen otherwise.
  9. ∅: No correlation between the increase in the backlash against Columbus Day and the recent increase in Anti Semitism exists.
The methodology might be something like the following:
  1. Surveying at least 1,000 Pro-Columbus Day Americans regarding a possible correlation between the increase in the backlash against Columbus Day and the recent increase in Anti Semitism.
  2. Surveying at least 1,000 Anti-Columbus Day Americans regarding a possible correlation between the increase in the backlash against Columbus Day and the recent increase in Anti Semitism.
  3. Interviewing scholars whom study the Inquisition, Christopher Columbus, the Age of Exploration and Colonialism, Native Central Americans (such as the Tainos), and Jewish history and genealogy (including Crypto-Jewish history and genealogy)
  4. Interviewing Anti-Columbus Day activists, Pro-Columbus Day activists, and employees and volunteers of organizations regarding Jewish history and gemealogy—including Crypto Jews (e.g., JewishGen—whose database I, I mention for the sake of disclosure, use to research my own family history, since I am a descendant of both Ashkenazi and Sephardic Anusim—and the Society For Crypto-Judaic Studies).
The sample groups, of course, would have to be as randomly formed and equal in number as possible; and the study would be a mixed-type—that is, a quantitative-and-qualitative—study. As for the literature review, it would have to include scholarly and non-scholarly literature on:
  1. The Inquisition
  2. Christopher Columbus
  3. The Age of Exploration and Colonialism
  4. Native Central Americans
  5. Jewish history and genealogy
  6. Anti-Columbus Day activism and activists
  7. Pro-Columbus Day activists and activism
Of course, I wouldn't be undertaking the study because I have an inherit bias in the subject and a hard time with both Excel and advanced statistical math (as my "C" grade in my Political Research Methods and my necessity of taking Statistics twice demonstrates), as well as a hard time with Literature Reviews (as I type with only finger on each hand due to Cerebral Palsy and have OCD/Anxiety-related angst over the already-angst-inducing pedantry of the MLA, the late Kate Turabian, and other citation zealots). My inherit bias, meanwhile, is demonstrated in this hypothesis:
"I stand by what I stated re Columbus, Caribeaños Nativos, and the Holocaust—also, I don't recall Jews mitigating, making light of, or denying the horrors of what Columbus did. In fact, a ben Anusim by the name of Bartolomé de las Casas worked to help and pursue justice for mistreated Americanos Nativos in his own day, which followed the day of Columbus."
Therefore, I've set up as much of the study as possible—may a professional researcher undertake the rest of the study, even if he or she gives me no mention concerning or other credit concerning the study.




Sunday, September 25, 2016

A Poll Regarding The 2016 Presidential Debates




Ideally, 1,000 votes would be recorded.


Via Survey System Sample Size Calculator with both the 2014 population numbers and the 2016 population numbers (The 2016 sample size surprised me! I would've thought that a bigger sample was needed!)



Tuesday, May 5, 2015

How Many Jews Really Died During The Holocaust, And When Did The Holocaust Really Begin And End?

We have to be honest: if we say only 6,000,000 Jews and go from 1933-1945, we're not even looking beyond what we knew at one point in history. The moment that the Great Depression began, the Anti Semitism that a then-still-relatively-marginal group known as the Nazis began to gain a scarily-massive affect. Also, Stalin wanted to destroy particularly Jews in the gulags and otherwise within the USSR. So, quite technically, the Holocaust began on October 24, 1929 and didn't end until the gulags closed. Also, how many Holocaust survivors (including Jewish-American and other Jewish Allied soldiers, Navymen, etc.) died post liberation and post war due to illnesses and injuries that they sustained while they were held in the murder camps and/or fighting against the Axis of Evil?

That doesn't even touch, e.g.:

  1. The Jews who died and were left uncounted because they did not count as Jews by Rabbinical and/or Karaite standards (or even by their own standards). 
  2. Unborn Jews who were miscarried and died in wombs, often with mothers whom knew of their pregnancies and were not spared the gas chambers, crematoriums, and other horrors despite their pleas for their babies to be saved.
  3. The Jews who died in hiding.

Sunday, April 19, 2015

By the Way, Kibosh the Khazar Theory Altogether

When I talked to the website owner of Khazaria.com and asked him about the testing of Khazar skeletons, I received the following reply, in part:

Why are we still talking about the Khazars? They aren't involved inour ancestry at all and archaeologists and historians say it may bedifficult to distinguish Khazars proper from the other peoples of Khazaria,plus I'm not aware of anybody who has tested Khazar skeletons or plans to, butyou are welcome to ask around now that Russians have successfully testedmany populations like the Yamnaya and the Mal'ta.Based on the latest evidence I would say the Khazars are Volga Finnicintermixed with East-Central Asian Turks and other assorted peoples, andtheir Turkic element is the same one found in other Turks and Mongoliansaround Eurasia, a particular affinity never found in Ashkenazim....In lieu of ancient DNA, modern populationshave proven to be good proxies to determine ethnicity. Did you see my recentarticle "The Chinese Lady who Joined the AshkenazicPeople"?http://issuu.com/jewishtimesasia/docs/mar2015/19Some Ashkenazim are also descended from a Korean-related people, from amore recent Asian-Ashkenazic marriage.
Also by the way, I compare Dr. Himladevi "Himla" Soodyall to "Dr." Eran Elhaik. I don't know what agenda "Dr." Soodyall has, although I can ascertain that she attempted to delegitimize the Lemba as much as "Dr." Elhaik attempted to delegitimize Ashkenazi Jews.

PS My dad's Ancestry atDNA in even Analysis 2.0* does, in fact, show a very-slight amount of Middle Eastern atDNA. It also shows a tiny bit of East Asian, Melanesian, Scandinavian, and Finnish/Northwest Russian atDNA. The Melanesian atDNA is probably related to the East Asian atDNA, and Scandinavian atDNA to the Finnish/Northwest Russian atDNA.


*"We create estimates for your genetic ethnicity by comparing your DNA to the DNA of other people who are native to a region. The AncestryDNA reference panel (version 2.0) contains 3,000 DNA samples from people in 26 global regions."
The AncestryDNA panel does need to be balanced**, though:


The updated AncestryDNA ethnicity estimation V2 reference panel contains 3,000 samples carefully selected as described to represent 26 distinct global regions (Table 3.1), each with a somewhat distinct genetic profile. As a comparison, our Beta panel represented only 22 distinct global regions.

Region# Samples
Great Britain111
Ireland138
Europe East432
Iberian Peninsula81
European Jewish189
Scandinavia232
Italy/Greece171
Europe West166
Finland/Northwest Russia59
Africa Southeastern Bantu18
Africa North26
Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers35
Benin/Togo60
Cameroon/Congo115
Ivory Coast/Ghana99
Mali16
Nigeria67
Senegal28
Native American131
Asia Central26
Asia East394
Asia South161
Melanesia28
Polynesia18
Caucasus58
Near East141
Total3000
Table 3.1: The Final AncestryDNA V2 Ethnicity Reference Panel

Regional Polygon Construction

As described above, we divide the globe into 26 overlapping geographic regions. Each region represents a population with a somewhat distinct genetic profile. Where possible, we use the known geographic locations of our samples to guide the delineation of regional boundaries. Figure 3.6 shows an example of the information used to define regional polygons.

For a more-accurate panel, they should have 115-16 ("115.384615"). Also, the selection should not be "carefully selected as described". The selection needs to be as random as possible. This cannot be accepted:


Before using the reference set to estimate ethnicities of AncestryDNA customers, we perform several experiments to lend support to the quality of this new reference set. This involves testing the performance of our ethnicity estimation procedure on the reference set of samples. (See Section 4 below for details regarding the statistical method used for ethnicity estimation.)
First, we use the new panel to do a leave-one-out analysis. In this experiment, we remove one sample from the reference panel and then use the remaining panel to estimate the ethnicity of the sample that has been removed. We repeat this process for every sample in the panel and then look at the average predicted ethnicity for each region in the set. Figure 3.4 shows the results of this experiment as a box plot.

Figure 3.4: Leave-one-out analysis of the V2 reference panel. Here we plot the results of an experiment in which each sample is removed from the reference set one-by-one and its ethnicity is estimated using the remaining panel samples. Each bar represents the average correctly predicted ethnicity for all samples from a given region. It is clear from this graph that for the majority of samples in each region, we predict at least 80% of the genetic ethnicity to be from the correct region. However, there are exceptions. In particular, our average prediction accuracy for samples from Great Britain, Western Europe, Iberian Peninsula, and Mali are not quite as high. There are many factors affecting the accuracy of these numbers, most importantly the number of reference samples in the panel for each region and the genetic distinctness of each region.

The purpose of this analysis is twofold. First, reference panel samples with poor performance in the leave-one-out analysis were removed. This included samples from individuals whose leave-one-out ethnicity did not represent their ethnic group of origin. (See for instance, Figure 3.5) Second, the leave-one-out plots allow us to define population boundaries and demonstrate our ability to accurately estimate the ethnicities of our reference panel samples using our method (see next section).

Figure 3.5: Removing Reference Panel Candidates. Leave-one-out estimation for a Reference Panel Candidate with 8 terminal ancestors from the Ivory Coast and Ghana region. While this sample was initially included as a candidate of the reference panel for the Ivory Coast/Ghana region, the sample’s leave-one-out ethnicity estimation reveals primarily Benin/Togo ancestry. As a result, this sample was removed from the reference panel.
In scientific studies, this is unacceptable unless it is for case studies and/or other non-generalizable/non-extrapolatable studies:


There are two sources of error that limit generalizability: sampling error (chance variation) and sample bias (constant error) which results from inadequate research design. Sampling error (but not sample bias) can be taken into account using statistics.
Probability samples are representative of the population. They permit generalization to the population from which they are drawn. There are two types of probability samples: Random and stratified.
Random - each individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample.
Stratified - a miniature representation of the larger population with regard to proportions within selected strata (e.g., gender, education, socioeconomic level). Individuals are randomly selected within strata.
table of random numbers or the random number function in Excel can be used to select a random sample from a population.
If a sample is, thus, "poor", it should be put in an "Indeterminable" or a "Poor Sample" category. 

Some would argue, "Well, what about other studies that don't have very-balanced numbers"? Given that numerous studies on Ashkenazi Jews, Lemba Jews, and other groups have been done overtime—and most have shown similar or equal results—the studies balance the numbers at least somewhat in the end. Therefore, the argument about "other studies that don't have very-balanced numbers" is moot at this point.


 ** Stratified Sampling – This technique divides the population into meaningful homogenous or similar groups based on a certain characteristic (e.g., gender, race, socioeconomic status) and then selects a simple random sample from each group. [For example, if you were interested in the affects of student motivation on academic achievement, particularly by grade level, you would divide the population into their respective grade levels and then randomly select an equal number of 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th graders.]

  

Monday, April 6, 2015

Bladder Cancer And Why I'm Volunteering for the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

By the way, the BCAN Baltimore Walk is on:

Sunday, May 3rd, 2015 at Canton Waterfront Park (Registration begins at 9 am and Walk begins at 10 am)

BTW, I did not share this in the video: look at the following two pictures:


  1. http://ebsco.smartimagebase.com/anatomy-of-the-female-reproductive-and-urinary-systems/view-item?ItemID=26385
  2. http://www.phoenix5.org/prostatedraw.html


Then imagine how having a condition such as IBS or an Enlarged Prostate would exacerbate Bladder Cancer (http://www.bcan.org/assets/Signs-Symptoms-One-Pager-FINAL-2.pdf):


  1. http://www.epainassist.com/images/Article-Images/Urinary-Bladder-cancer.jpg
  2. http://www.cancer.gov/images/cdr/live/CDR749308-750.jpg
  3. http://patienteducationcenter.org/wp-content/themes/default/image.php?image=205233


PS The BCAN website states "Bladder cancer is the sixth most commonly diagnosed cancer in the U.S.". I was either told or thinking that I heard "most diagnosed".

Thursday, August 28, 2014

How A Skewed Taglit-Birthright Study Endangers Both the Jewish Community At Large And Will Taglit-Birthright's Reputation

I see plenty of issues with this study:

1) "Saxe and research associates Michelle Shain and Shahar Hecht collected data from August 6-11 via an online questionnaire, which included versions of the Pew survey questions. It was sent to eligible US Birthright Israel-Taglit candidates who had applied for a trip between summer 2011 and winter 2013/14."

There is no real "control" group. There are only Birthright applicants.

2) "Encouraged through an an opportunity to win one of two $100 Amazon.com gift cards, 1,756 young Jewish adults filled out the survey. The respondents included 1,122 who actually did go to Israel on a Birthright trip, and 634 nonparticipants."

The one group that there was, was pooled and divided unevenly. There should've been a total of either:

  1.  878 Birthright travelers and 878 non travelers (still 1,756 people total, and and bringing in a control subgroup of 878 people—because, again, there was no control group; and a control group within a group does not count as a separate control group), or 
  2. 1,122 travelers and 1,122 non travelers (keeping the 1,122 travelers who filled out the survey and bringing in a control subgroup). 

Either way, the surveyed ("treatment")-to-control group ratio is completely absent, let alone lacking.

3) "For the study, the Birthright applicants’ results were compared to a recent Pew survey and a Gallup poll, both of which were completed at the end of July."

The same problem regarding the subject pool and control groups is here, and data collection is also a problem here. Data from June 21, 2011-December 21, 2013 is older and more plentiful than data from July 2014, for example. Thus, there is no adequate amount of recency and amount of data to compare. In other words, the study would have been less skewed if both sets of data were from June 21, 2011-December 21, 2013; June 21, 2011-July 31, 2014; or July 31, 2014.


4) "Saxe feels the young Jews polled are a representative cross-section of young American Jews for several reasons. Primarily, bluntly, “because Birthright is free — and fun,” said Saxe, meaning the trip doesn’t only draw those who think it’s worth spending money on  a trip to Israel."

Any "representative cross-section of young American Jews" would include Messianic Jews (who are banned from applying to [and even specifically targeted for persecution by] Taglit) and others who Taglit bans .

In fact, the specific wording is in part:

"Eligible individuals are those who identify as Jewish and are recognized as such by their local community or by one of the recognized denominations of Judaism. Applicants must also have at least one Jewish birth parent, or have completed Jewish conversion through a recognized Jewish denomination. 

"*Those applying for trips leaving from the Former Soviet Union are eligible if they have at least one Jewish birth grandparent. The accuracy of information pertaining to the heritage of an applicant for a trip leaving from the Former Soviet Union is also verified by a local Consul before an applicant is considered eligible."

This on an international level alone would single out Karaites (who Rabbinate Judaism often slanders) and many other Jews, including Lemba Jews (who go by Patrilineal Descent and are mostly Messianic— despite that most sources try to separate them from the Jewish community at large because they "are Christian" [as if Christianity is not Jewish], etc..). Therefore, this certainly would not allow for just a "representative cross-section of young American Jews".


5) "Saxe said his team has analyzed the backgrounds of those who responded and the profiling is in context with last year’s massive Pew survey study of American Jews. The years of Jewish education, day school all look just about the same, he said, noting one slight difference — Birthright draws a lower proportion of children from intermarriages."

This skews the study as well. The "cross-section" are mostly Rabbinically-Jewish Rabbinical Jews (with a Rabbincally-Jewish Rabbincal Jew being a Jew who has at least one Matrilineally-Jewish parent "[and/]or have completed Jewish conversion through a recognized Jewish denomination".

([Do not kid yourself; Taglit would not look twice at Jews whose family was raised outside of a Rabbinate shul for two or more generations. In other words, for instance, Isaac Kaganowicz would not be considered a Rabbincally-Jewish Rabbincal Jew if both of his parents were Atheistically-raised Jews who were raising Issac in the same way that their parents raised them.)

"Since Taglit was founded in December 1999, annually some 20-25% of candidates have had no prior involvement in Jewish life, said Saxe. “The great piece of Taglit is that it levels the playing field,” said Saxe."

They do go to shul, though. In fact, I had a peer at UMBC who is an Atheist and whose family goes to a Reform shul. So, the "20-25% of candidates" have either parents and/or grandparents who at least go to shul.

6) "Pew doesn’t consider many of the people who went on Taglit to be Jewish because they don’t call themselves Jewish by religion, rather by parentage. “They might not count themselves as Jews until they go on Birthright,” added Saxe."

The Pew data also skews the study.

In other words, the Taglit study (which is called a "Brandeis University" study) is flawed and both dangerous to the Jewish community at large (who, for example, loses numbers according to Taglit-Pew-Saxe standards) and Taglit Birthright itself (and Taglit Birthright has had trouble in the past).