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Showing posts with label DNA. Show all posts
Showing posts with label DNA. Show all posts

Sunday, April 19, 2015

By the Way, Kibosh the Khazar Theory Altogether

When I talked to the website owner of Khazaria.com and asked him about the testing of Khazar skeletons, I received the following reply, in part:

Why are we still talking about the Khazars? They aren't involved inour ancestry at all and archaeologists and historians say it may bedifficult to distinguish Khazars proper from the other peoples of Khazaria,plus I'm not aware of anybody who has tested Khazar skeletons or plans to, butyou are welcome to ask around now that Russians have successfully testedmany populations like the Yamnaya and the Mal'ta.Based on the latest evidence I would say the Khazars are Volga Finnicintermixed with East-Central Asian Turks and other assorted peoples, andtheir Turkic element is the same one found in other Turks and Mongoliansaround Eurasia, a particular affinity never found in Ashkenazim....In lieu of ancient DNA, modern populationshave proven to be good proxies to determine ethnicity. Did you see my recentarticle "The Chinese Lady who Joined the AshkenazicPeople"?http://issuu.com/jewishtimesasia/docs/mar2015/19Some Ashkenazim are also descended from a Korean-related people, from amore recent Asian-Ashkenazic marriage.
Also by the way, I compare Dr. Himladevi "Himla" Soodyall to "Dr." Eran Elhaik. I don't know what agenda "Dr." Soodyall has, although I can ascertain that she attempted to delegitimize the Lemba as much as "Dr." Elhaik attempted to delegitimize Ashkenazi Jews.

PS My dad's Ancestry atDNA in even Analysis 2.0* does, in fact, show a very-slight amount of Middle Eastern atDNA. It also shows a tiny bit of East Asian, Melanesian, Scandinavian, and Finnish/Northwest Russian atDNA. The Melanesian atDNA is probably related to the East Asian atDNA, and Scandinavian atDNA to the Finnish/Northwest Russian atDNA.


*"We create estimates for your genetic ethnicity by comparing your DNA to the DNA of other people who are native to a region. The AncestryDNA reference panel (version 2.0) contains 3,000 DNA samples from people in 26 global regions."
The AncestryDNA panel does need to be balanced**, though:


The updated AncestryDNA ethnicity estimation V2 reference panel contains 3,000 samples carefully selected as described to represent 26 distinct global regions (Table 3.1), each with a somewhat distinct genetic profile. As a comparison, our Beta panel represented only 22 distinct global regions.

Region# Samples
Great Britain111
Ireland138
Europe East432
Iberian Peninsula81
European Jewish189
Scandinavia232
Italy/Greece171
Europe West166
Finland/Northwest Russia59
Africa Southeastern Bantu18
Africa North26
Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers35
Benin/Togo60
Cameroon/Congo115
Ivory Coast/Ghana99
Mali16
Nigeria67
Senegal28
Native American131
Asia Central26
Asia East394
Asia South161
Melanesia28
Polynesia18
Caucasus58
Near East141
Total3000
Table 3.1: The Final AncestryDNA V2 Ethnicity Reference Panel

Regional Polygon Construction

As described above, we divide the globe into 26 overlapping geographic regions. Each region represents a population with a somewhat distinct genetic profile. Where possible, we use the known geographic locations of our samples to guide the delineation of regional boundaries. Figure 3.6 shows an example of the information used to define regional polygons.

For a more-accurate panel, they should have 115-16 ("115.384615"). Also, the selection should not be "carefully selected as described". The selection needs to be as random as possible. This cannot be accepted:


Before using the reference set to estimate ethnicities of AncestryDNA customers, we perform several experiments to lend support to the quality of this new reference set. This involves testing the performance of our ethnicity estimation procedure on the reference set of samples. (See Section 4 below for details regarding the statistical method used for ethnicity estimation.)
First, we use the new panel to do a leave-one-out analysis. In this experiment, we remove one sample from the reference panel and then use the remaining panel to estimate the ethnicity of the sample that has been removed. We repeat this process for every sample in the panel and then look at the average predicted ethnicity for each region in the set. Figure 3.4 shows the results of this experiment as a box plot.

Figure 3.4: Leave-one-out analysis of the V2 reference panel. Here we plot the results of an experiment in which each sample is removed from the reference set one-by-one and its ethnicity is estimated using the remaining panel samples. Each bar represents the average correctly predicted ethnicity for all samples from a given region. It is clear from this graph that for the majority of samples in each region, we predict at least 80% of the genetic ethnicity to be from the correct region. However, there are exceptions. In particular, our average prediction accuracy for samples from Great Britain, Western Europe, Iberian Peninsula, and Mali are not quite as high. There are many factors affecting the accuracy of these numbers, most importantly the number of reference samples in the panel for each region and the genetic distinctness of each region.

The purpose of this analysis is twofold. First, reference panel samples with poor performance in the leave-one-out analysis were removed. This included samples from individuals whose leave-one-out ethnicity did not represent their ethnic group of origin. (See for instance, Figure 3.5) Second, the leave-one-out plots allow us to define population boundaries and demonstrate our ability to accurately estimate the ethnicities of our reference panel samples using our method (see next section).

Figure 3.5: Removing Reference Panel Candidates. Leave-one-out estimation for a Reference Panel Candidate with 8 terminal ancestors from the Ivory Coast and Ghana region. While this sample was initially included as a candidate of the reference panel for the Ivory Coast/Ghana region, the sample’s leave-one-out ethnicity estimation reveals primarily Benin/Togo ancestry. As a result, this sample was removed from the reference panel.
In scientific studies, this is unacceptable unless it is for case studies and/or other non-generalizable/non-extrapolatable studies:


There are two sources of error that limit generalizability: sampling error (chance variation) and sample bias (constant error) which results from inadequate research design. Sampling error (but not sample bias) can be taken into account using statistics.
Probability samples are representative of the population. They permit generalization to the population from which they are drawn. There are two types of probability samples: Random and stratified.
Random - each individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample.
Stratified - a miniature representation of the larger population with regard to proportions within selected strata (e.g., gender, education, socioeconomic level). Individuals are randomly selected within strata.
table of random numbers or the random number function in Excel can be used to select a random sample from a population.
If a sample is, thus, "poor", it should be put in an "Indeterminable" or a "Poor Sample" category. 

Some would argue, "Well, what about other studies that don't have very-balanced numbers"? Given that numerous studies on Ashkenazi Jews, Lemba Jews, and other groups have been done overtime—and most have shown similar or equal results—the studies balance the numbers at least somewhat in the end. Therefore, the argument about "other studies that don't have very-balanced numbers" is moot at this point.


 ** Stratified Sampling – This technique divides the population into meaningful homogenous or similar groups based on a certain characteristic (e.g., gender, race, socioeconomic status) and then selects a simple random sample from each group. [For example, if you were interested in the affects of student motivation on academic achievement, particularly by grade level, you would divide the population into their respective grade levels and then randomly select an equal number of 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th graders.]

  

Wednesday, October 8, 2014

"'Reform Jews' DNA"?

That's about one of the most-insulting search results that I've ever seen. Just because some Anti Messianics (including some Reform Jews), Anti Semites, Self-Hating Jews, and others choose to play games regarding Jewishness and DNA does not mean that Messianic and Non-Reform Non-Messianic Jews ought to be playing games regarding Jewishness and DNA. We do not have to sink to Jesse Straus' and others' levels.

Let them be the fools who claim that Jewishness is religious and not ethnic. Besides, of course "Judaism is a religion and not a race"! Judaism has always been the religion and Jewishness the ethnic ("racial") identity.

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Tuesday, September 9, 2014

The Ancient Sabra and the Modern Diasporan Jews

Here's what an Ancient Jew would have looked like (See Khazaria.com as well):


Kevin Alan Brook informs, "Libyan Jews are mainly Israelites who may have mixed somewhat with Berbers.

Yemenim (and I knew of one whose dad is a Yemeni Cohen, although her mom is Ashkenazi, at UMBC) "(Temanim) are a mix of Yemenite Arabs and Israelites."





What ישוע Himself may have looked like

(Side profile of above. Lighten his skin a little, and do something with the hair. Then you have my Uncle Gary [See below. This is a publicly-viewable picture from 2010.])



I just realized that my late granddad is in this picture. By the way, he was much darker in his younger days, even from 1989 (when he was 53 and my dad got married in July of that year) to 2006 (when he was 70 and I was effectively estranged from my dad in November of that year.

(Incidentally, I never saw him again, although I did talk with him and see pictures of him. Needless to say, he was not amused that I found out about our Jewish heritage. In one of our final conversations, if not the final one, he changed his story from the Stefan Czarniecki schpiel to "If we had any Jewish blood, I don't know about it." To be fair, though, I don't know if he knew that we are related to Kirk Douglas [who happened to be a Danilovich]—neither did I, and I've been pretty bold about how I feel about it.)




Then this is the front view:









For comparison:




(Uncle Gary's profile picture from March 28, 2009)

By the way, my mom talks about how I have more of the nose of my Aunt Mary (ז''ל) than I do of my dad's "bulbous" one (Fine; whatever; it [Dad's nose]'s still a [stereotypically-] Jewish one.).

In other words, we can pretty much conclude:


  1. The Ancient Jews were not Black.
  2. Modern Diasporan Jews (and our brothers and sisters b'Eretz) are indeed Jews.
  3. "The main ethnic element of Ashkenazim (German and Eastern European Jews), Sephardim (Spanish and Portuguese Jews), Mizrakhim (Middle Eastern Jews), Juhurim (Mountain Jews of the Caucasus), Italqim (Italian Jews), and most other modern Jewish populations of the world is Israelite."
There you have it (and chillhomie7 can chill out now. If "chill out" isn't clear enough....).

Saturday, April 26, 2014

I Was Reading (or Rereading) About Jews In Slovakia Tonight, And...

I got a better understanding of why my branch of the Foczkos fled from Russia to Upper Hungary (Slovakia)—I had pretty much figured that being Anusim in Slovakia felt better for them than being openly Jewish in even Poland (which, keep in mind, was under Russian control), and the (re)reading confirmed and solidified my figuring. Yes, we have Eastern European Y-DNA and atDNA; but that happens when men, for example (and as in our case), marry Leviyot (Levitesses) and are counted as Levites (as Yefuneh Hakenizi was counted as a Yehudi [Judahite] when he married Kalev's mother. After all, Tanakh talks about Kalev as a Yehudi. This doesn't mean that Yefuneh's ethnicity changed, by the way. He was a ger, after all; but his son was a Matrilineal Jew.).

Also consider Ruth: she remained a gentile, but Na'omi's people became her people.

Anyway, that's enough of that for right now. L'laila v'Shabbat Tov.

Tuesday, April 15, 2014

Three Questions For a Seder and My Answers (And In Lieu of Pictures of the Passover Eclipse)

By the way, the original poster makes a good point, and even I only remember 1620 (April or May), Plymouth, Massachusetts (from which I'm assuming the city in Luzerne County got its name), the Pilgrims, etc.—and I'm an American-born Jew who majored in Political Science, not to mention one whose mom's family is purportedly related to Ethan Allen  and somehow related to John Allan! 

(I have yet, I think, to figure out the exact connection. Nonetheless, as Allen family history goes, you are an alcoholic and/or have a relationship with a difficult parent. Edgar Allan Poe indeed had both traits—and don't be mistaken; adopted children can pick up family traits. The point, of course, is that I should know more about the Mayflower, the Puritans, etc.—and the one thing, or at least one of the things, that sticks with me is the Sukkot celebration that became Thanksgiving.)

Anyway, enough about not being American enough for being so American (though maybe that's a good thing; given that it might mean that I'm less assimilated than I could've been for being a bat-Anusim who didn't know about my Jewish heritage for years!). 

By the way, one more point before I answer the questions (and this really sticking with me): unlike Anusi Christopher Columbus, who understandably drew a parallel between the Native Americans and the Kena'anim, there can be no explanation as to why the Puritans killed the Native Americans who they killed (Quite frankly, Columbus killed some Native Americans; whereas the Puritans murdered them. With the differences of the Covenants, Columbus did what was right while the Puritans did not. Besides, you would have to be kidding yourself if you could blame, e.g., Pinchas and Paul for murder. In the case of Paul, by the way, he thought that he was applying the mitzvot about killing koferim correctly.).

1. What events have shaped your identity on a personal and a Jewish level?

There are so many that I could not even begin to answer this question fully. One, though, is when I saw a Messianic Jewish display at a Family Christian Bookstores shop and then typed in "Jews For Jesus" as (what I thought was) a joke to see where it would go. The other thing, too, was Dad taking deliberate pains to pronounce our last name "Charnetski" at points. So, really, it was a sequence of events that led up to finding out who I really am.

By the way, I know that my family gets mad at me; and one complaint is that circumstantial evidence is not enough. However, circumstantial evidence was enough for those such as Hillel (e.g., a woman didn't need a body to prove that her husband was dead). Also, Dad's atDNA results are showing "Caucasus" (Middle Eastern) DNA. Incidentally, I still maintain that the Foczkos are Levites; and whoever permanently marked our DNA gave the Foczko men the R1a1a1b1-Z280-...L-1280 mutation (which is apparently an European R1a1a1 mutation, although whoever updated the chart did not update the R1a1a1b1...CTS6 to reflect an exclusively-Persian origin and needs to do that). Also, gerim and giyorot were considered part of the tribe into whom they married.
 
2. How do you recall them? How do they influence the way you live and act?


See my About.Me page. From there, you can see my Facebook accounts and page, my Twitter account, and other medium that I use, all of which reflect how finding out that I'm Jewish and a bat-Levi (and a bat-kohanim) have affected how I live and act. That'll be quite a recollection on my part, I think.

3. What stories do you tell your children about your family and communal past?


I don't have children (at least yet), and the answer to Question Two applies to Question Three. By the way, Lipsk, Sejny, etc. were part of Congress Poland; and I also now know why owning farms was so important for the Czernieckis, Danilowiczes, etc.:

The government of Nicholas I regarded the cantonist laws as part of the system of legislation for "correcting" the Jews in the realm, their principal object being to convert large numbers of Jewish children to Christianity and make them conform to the Russian environment. The cantonist laws were therefore used as a means of exerting pressure on Jews in other spheres. Jewish youths who attended the state schools, for instance, were exempted from their military obligations, as were children of Jewish agricultural colonists. These concessions, therefore, to some extent promoted an increase in the proportion of Jewish children at state schools and of Jewish agricultural settlers. The cantonist legislation also did not apply to districts of the Kingdom of Poland and of Bessarabia – the latter until 1852 – so that a number of Jews moved from the Ukraine, Belorussia, and Lithuania to these areas. The law thus also stimulated Jewish emigration from Russia.
.וזה כל. לילה ופסח טוב ושמח